On January 23, 1863, the Cedar Falls Gazette of Cedar Falls, Iowa wrote an article about their visit to the general hospital complex at Jefferson Barracks Military Post. Located just south of St. Louis, the hospital at Jefferson Barracks was one of the busiest hospital facilities in the country, treating over 18,000 soldiers in just four years of war. One member of the newspaper, named “Geo.,” grew ill and was subsequently sent north from Helena, Arkansas to Jefferson Barracks. In the wake of a visit, the members of the Gazette took time to heavily criticize the government’s treatment of wounded and ill soldiers.
Highly critical of the poor sanitary conditions and slow discharge rate for convalescents, the Gazette wrote: “Soldiers are dying every day in the hospitals in St. Louis, who, if they had their descriptive rolls, could be discharged, go home, and get well, instead of being obliged to suffer and die in fetid, loathsome hospitals unable to draw a cent of pay or a rag of clothing, and all because of a non-fulfillment of duty on the part of the officers.”
In addition to this, they wrote about the “barbarous” treatment of incapacitated soldiers, as they were transported to St. Louis from the front. “In being transferred from Helena to Jefferson Barracks [along the Mississippi River], our brother was with three hundred others on a miserable little steamer, and so crowded was the boat that they put the sick on the lower deck, in among the machinery, out on the guards … Many died during the trip, and many more died soon after being landed in consequence of the privations and hardships they were compelled to undergo.” They concluded that “it is barbarous, it is inhuman, to treat our brave soldiers thus.”
While this was in response to their own correspondent’s experience in St. Louis, the Gazette’s article touched on the sanitary, hygienic, and organizational issues that plagued many Civil War hospitals. Though the newspapermen were horrified by what they saw, it should be noted that the vast majority of surgeons, nurses, and volunteers aboard hospital ships and in the general hospitals were doing all they could to both evacuate as many ill and wounded, while also make sure soldiers were convalescing for the appropriate amount of time. To the newspaper, it was not the hospital administration and staff that was at fault, but rather the United States government.
The Gazette article made note that, “As far as our experience goes we have no fault to find with those in charge of the hospitals. At Jefferson Barracks we are sure that all was done that the regulations would admit of … All with whom we came in contact were kind, courteous and attentive, and seemed disposed to do everything in their power to alleviate the sufferings of the sick in their charge. The wards are kept as clean and neat as the parlor of any thrifty house-wife, and especial attention is also paid to the beds, raiment and persons of the sick.” However, the great concern was “the lack of sufficient nurses,” which to them was caused by “the Government which neglects to properly provide for the wants of sick … Justice and humanity imperatively demand a re-modeling of our hospital system.”
Articles such as this brought these concerns to the attention of local leaders, military families, and civilians in order for those conditions and low numbers of nurses to be improved – not just in the Western and Trans-Mississippi theaters, but across the entire front. It makes us wonder as historians how many read this particular article, and how effective these articles were in pressing Washington for hospital reform.
“A Trip to Jefferson Barracks,” Cedar Falls Gazette (Cedar Falls, Iowa), January 23, 1863, Newspapers.com.