Call it what you will – First Bull Run or First Manassas – it was the battle that awakened America to the horrors of Civil War. Until that hot July day, war had been parades, flashy uniforms, bad food, the novelty of camp life, and attempts at military drill. July 21, 1861, would change the ideal of war by introducing reality.
However, the fighting and carnage did not break either side’s resolve, rather it boosted Confederate morale with a victory and outraged the Union. Clearly, the war was not going to finish in 90 days.
July 21, 1861