Collecting Civil War General CDVs

CDV of Brigadier General Francis E. Patterson. 

Ever since elementary school, I’ve been fascinated with studying the American Civil War, particularly its generals. I’m most interested in the generals who died during the course of the war—either from wounds, illnesses, or accidents. I’ve been collecting antique photographs since I can remember—my father is a full-time antique dealer and his father bought and sold guns, knives, and watches for a living. Antiquing is in my blood. I’ve combined my interests for Civil War generals and antique collecting into a satisfying and unique hobby.

I’ve enjoyed collecting military carte de visites—commonly referred to as CDVs among collectors—for a decade. These paper photographs (2 ½” by 3 ½”) mounted to a piece of cardboard (2 ½” by 4”) originated in France in 1854. They easily surpassed the popularity of daguerreotypes and tintypes because they were inexpensive to buy and easy to carry and store. Millions of families across Europe filled their photo albums with CDVs of their friends and relatives. They also added to their albums CDVs of heads of state, politicians, writers, artists, actors, priests, generals, and explorers. In a way, collecting CDVs of notable individuals during the nineteenth century was a precursor to the practice of collecting tobacco and baseball cards popularized in twentieth-century America.

The best places to find Civil War general CDVs are at antique shops (The Horse Soldier), listed online (Heritage Auctions, Cowan’s Auctions, and War of the Rebellion), at flea markets, or on eBay—try searching “General CDV.”

CDVs were first introduced to the United States in 1859. They became so popular, that within five years after they were first introduced, Oliver Wendell Holmes declared them to be “the social currency, the ‘Green-backs’ of civilization…” Thousands of CDVs depicting Union and Confederate generals were produced and circulated during the Civil War—the golden age of CDVs—in both the North and the South. These CDVs have become desired collectibles among modern collectors.

There are a handful of elements that dictate the value of Civil War general CDVs: the photographer (The E. & H. T. Anthony and Matthew Brady backmark is the most desirable), the individual sitting for the photo, if it is autographed, if the individual is in a common or rare pose, if it is a photograph or an engraving, and its condition. (In many cases CDVs were trimmed to fit into the albums or have been damaged from exposure to dirt, dust, oils, insects, or mold). Civil War general CDVs can sell for as little as $5.00 to well over $2,000. The more desirable CDVs tend to sell in the $150 – $350 price range.

It can be a very expensive hobby, but it doesn’t necessarily have to be. Lately, the most convenient and economical way for me to find them is by searching eBay. Over the last, few weeks I purchased CDVs of Maj. Gen. John K. F. Mansfield, Brig. Gen. Frederick W. Lander, and Maj. Gen. Phil Kearny for $10.00 – $15.00 apiece. It’s hard to believe you can purchase a 150-year-old piece of Civil War memorabilia for about the same price as a trip to Chipotle or Starbucks!

(From Left to Right): CDVs of Generals John F. K. Mansfield, Frederick W. Lander, and Philip Kearny. All three died in 1862. I recently purchased these CDVs on eBay.

Since adding these three CDVs to my growing collection, I’m now on a quest to accumulate as many CDVs of generals who died during the war as I can. For me, this isn’t just a hobby, but it’s a way to pay tribute to these fallen officers, in many instances mere footnotes in the history of the American Civil War.

Note: If you do decide to take up collecting CDVs, make sure you are properly protecting them. They can easily be destroyed by a collector’s negligence. Bags Unlimited Inc. offers some excellent CDV sleeves and storage boxes for a fair price. I’ve been buying sleeves from here for years.



Holmes, Oliver W. Soundings from the Atlantic. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1864.

Lewis, Russell E. Warman’s Civil War Collectibles. 3rd ed. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2010.

Mace, O. Henry. Collector’s Guide to Early Photographs. 2nd ed. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 1999.

Van Camp, Kristel. “Damage Atlas for Photographic Materials.” CeROArt. (accessed December 19, 2018).

3 Responses to Collecting Civil War General CDVs

  1. Although War Photography is said to have been initiated during the 1846 War with Mexico, and taken root during the 1855 Crimean War, it was during the American Civil War that this form of visual record came into its own. So many images — perhaps 100,000 CDV’s were produced from glass negatives — that it permitted specialization (such as Frank Jastrzembski’s collection of General officers.)
    For myself (and I do not own a single CDV) the most compelling Civil War images are those captured by New Orleans photographer J. D. Edwards at Pensacola in early 1861… before the war began. The eager, fresh faces of volunteers from Mississippi and Louisiana and Alabama reflect naive confidence in a way of life… that was about to disappear. (Scroll down for some of the 70 images captured by J. D. Edwards during March and April 1861.)

  2. I am trying to find a CDV of Prvt John Shanes, civil war moh recipient. Though not of my bloodline, he is my Uncle Gordon Bane Shanes grandfather. Any idea as to where to look (dealers)? This would be a nice gift for my son. My mother’s sister was Gordon’s wife

    Thank you.

    Henry D.

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